Àngels Tudó, Greta Gaiani, Maria Rey Varela, Karl B. Andree, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor, Mònica Campàs, Jorge Diogène (Institut de Recerca i Tecnologies Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Spain); Takeshi Tsumuraya (Osaka Prefecture University, Japan)
Abstract: Ciguatera Poisoning (CP) is a human food-borne poisoning that has been known since ancient times to be found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, which occurs when fish or very rarely invertebrates contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) are consumed. The genus of marine benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus produces CTX precursors. The presence of Gambierdiscus species in a region is one indicator of CP risk. The Canary Islands (North Eastern Atlantic Ocean) is an área where CP cases have been reported since 2004. In the present study, samplings for Gambierdiscus cells were conducted in this area during 2016 and 2017. Gambierdiscus cells were isolated and identified as G. australes, G. excentricus, G. caribaeus, and G. belizeanus by molecular analysis. In this study, G. belizeanus is reported for the first time in the Canary Islands. Gambierdiscus isolates were cultured, and the CTX-like toxicity of forty-one strains was evaluated with the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (neuro-2a CBA). G. excentricus exhibited the highest CTX-like toxicity (9.5–2566.7 fg CTX1B equiv. cell-1) followed by G. australes (1.7–452.6.2 fg CTX1B equiv. cell-1). By contrast, the toxicity of G. belizeanus was low (5.6 fg CTX1B equiv. cell-1), and G. caribaeus did not exhibit CTX-like toxicity. In addition, for the G. belizeanus strain, the production of CTXs was evaluated with a colorimetric immunoassay and an electrochemical immunosensor resulting in G. belizeanus producing two types of CTX congeners (CTX1B and CTX3C series congeners) and can contribute to CP in the Canary Islands.
Keywords: ciguatera, ciguatoxins (CTXs), Gambierdiscus, neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA), immunoassay, immunosensor